Posts Tagged 'Africa'

Full AFRICOM Reading List

Maintaining up-to-date information and deep knowledge about Africa is critical to the team at the U.S. Africa Command. To that end, a reading list was compiled to provide suggestions. Thanks to the AFRICOM Research Library for providing us with this list. Look for an upcoming story on the library, new to Kelley Barracks.

Overview of Africa

“France’s Relationship with Sub-Saharan Africa,” Anton Andereggen

“Africana: The Encyclopedia of African and African American Experience,” Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates

“Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa,” Samuel Aryeetey-Attoh

"Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa"“Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument,” Patrick Chabal and Jean-Pascal Daloz

“The Black Man’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State,” Basil Davidson

“The Search for Africa: History. Culture, Politics,” Basil Davidson

“The Shackled Continent: Africa’s Past, Present and Future,” Robert Guest

‘The Africans,” David Lamb

“Beyond Humanitarianism: What You Need to Know about Africa,” Princeton N. Lyman and Patricia Dorff

“The Fate of Africa: A History of Fifty Years of Independence,” Martin Meredith

“Cultural Atlas of Africa,” Jocelyn Murray (Out of Print)

“Africa Since 1800,” Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore

“A Short History of Africa,” Roland Oliver and J.D. Fage (Out of Print)

“Bury the Chains,” Adam Hochschild

“The Scramble for Africa: White Man’s Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876-1912,” Thomas Pakenham

“Africa: A Biography of the Continent,” John Reader

“Out of America: A Black Man Confronts Africa,” Keith B. Richburg

“Into Africa: Intercultural Insights,” Yale Richmond and Phyllis Gestrin (2nd ed. titled “Into Africa: A Guide to Sub-Saharan Culture and Diversity”)

“How Europe Underdeveloped Africa,” Walter Rodney

“United States Foreign Policy toward Africa: Incrementalism Crisis and Change,” Peter J. Schraeder

“Malaria Dreams: An African Adventure,” Stuart Stevens

“Government and Politics in Africa,” William Tordoff


“Africa in Chaos: A Comparative History,” George RN. Ayittey

“Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping Our World,” Benjamin Barber

“African Guerrillas: Raging Against the Machine,” Morten Boas and Kevin Dunn

“Kalashnikov Culture: Small Arms Proliferation and Irregular Warfare,” Christopher Carr

“Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa,” Naomi Chazan, Peter Lewis, Robert Mortimer, and Donald Rothchild (Out of Print)

“Free at Last?: U.S. Policy Toward Africa and the End of the Cold War,” Michael Clough
"Wars, Guns, and Votes"

“Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places,” Paul Collier

“Disease and Empire: The Health of European Troops in the Conquest of Africa,” Philip D. Curtin

“Africa’s Armies: From Honor to Infamy,” Robert B. Edgerton

“Untapped: The Scramble for Africa’s Oil,” John Ghazvinian

“Clash of Civilizations,” Samuel Huntington

“Livingstone,” Tim Jeal

“The Coming Anarchy: Shattering Dreams of the Post Cold War,” Robert D. Kaplan

“More than Humanitarianism: A Strategic U.S. Approach toward Africa,” Anthony Lake and Christine Todd Whitman

“Victory on the Potomac: The Goldwater-Nichols Act Unifies the Pentagon,” James R.Locher III (Out of Print)

“The Policy Factor: Agricultural Performance in Kenya and Tanzania,” Michael Lofchie (Out of Print)

Development in Africa

“Africa Unchained: The Blueprint for Africa’s Future,” George B.N. Ayittey

“The Trouble with Africa: Why Foreign Aid Isn’t Working,” Robert Calderisi

“The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It,” Paul Collier

“The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much III and So Little Good,” William Easterly

"The End of Poverty"

“The Lords of Poverty: The Power, Prestige, and Corruption of the International Aid Business,” Graham Hancock

“The Road to Hell: The Ravaging Effects of Foreign Aid and International Charity,” Michael Maren

“The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time,” Jeffrey Sachs


“The River: A Journey to the Source of HIV and AIDS,” Edward Hooper and Bill Hamilton


“Blood from Stones: The Secret Financial Network of Terror,” Douglas Farah

“The Red Sea Terror Triangle: Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Islamic Terror,” Shaul Shay

Northern Africa

“Morocco: The Islamist Awakening and Other Challenges,” Marvine Howe

“Algeria: Anger of the Dispossessed,” John Phillips and Martin Evans

Central Africa

“The Graves Are Not Yet Full: Race, Tribe, and Power in the Heart of Africa,” Bill Berkeley

“Heart of Darkness,” Joseph Conrad

“Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda,” Romeo Dallaire

“Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda,” Alison Liebhafsky Des Forges and Alison Des Forges (Library has a pdf version)

“We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda,” Philip Gourevitch

“King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa,” Adam Hochschild

“Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa’s Greatest Explorer,” Tim Jeal

“Across the Red River,” Christian Jennings

“The Dynamics of Violence in Central Africa,” Rene Lemarchand

“All Things Must Fight to Live: Stories of War and Deliverance in Congo,” Bryan Mealer

“Sowing the Mustard Seed: The Struggle for Freedom and Democracy in Uganda,” Yoweri K. Museveni

“A Bend in the River,” V.S. Naipaul

“The Congo From Leopold to Kabila: A People’s History,” Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja

“The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide,” Gerard Prunier

“In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu’s Congo,” Michela Wrong

East Africa / The Horn

“Against All Odds: A Chronicle of the Eritrean Revolution With a New Afterword on the Postwar Transition, Dan Connell

“The Zanzibar Chest, Aidan Hartley

“Abyssinian Chronicles: A Novel, Moses Isegawa

“Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan. Somalia, and Eritrea, Robert D. Kaplan

“A History of Ethiopia Updated Edition, Harold G. Marcus

“Battle for the Bundu: The First World War in East Africa, Charles Miller (Out of Print)

“Ethiopia, The Unknown Land: A Cultural and Historical Guide, Stuart Munro-Hay

“Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan, and Rwanda, Scott Peterson

“I Didn’t Do It for You: How the World Betrayed a Small African Nation, Michela Wrong


“The Lost Boys of Sudan: An American Story of the Refugee Experience,” Mark Bixler

“God Grew Tired of Us: A Memoir,” John Bul Dau

“They Poured Fire on Us From the Sky: The Story of Three Lost Boys from Sudan,” Benson Deng, Alephonsion Deng, and Benjamin Ajak

“Khartoum 1885: General Gordon’s Last Stand, “Donald Featherstone

“Darfur: A New History of a Long War,” Julie Flint and Alex de Waal

“A Call for Democracy in Sudan,” John Garang

“A History of the Sudan: From the Coming of Islam to the Present Day,” P.M. Holt and M.W. Daly

“The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars,” Douglas Hamilton Johnson

“Inside Sudan: Political Islam, Conflict, and Catastrophe,” Donald Petterson

“Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide,” Gerard Prunier

“Emma’s War,” Deborah Scroggins

“The Triumph of the Sun,” Wilbur Smith (Out of Print)

“A Strategic Assessment of Sudan,” The Sudan Research Group (Out of Print)

Southern Africa

“Selous Scouts: Top Secret War,” Ron R. Daly

“A Complicated War: The Harrowing of Mozambique,” William Finnegan

“Mukiwa: A White Boy in Africa,” Peter Godwin

“Thabo Mbeki and the Battle for the Soul of the ANC,” William Gumede

“Bloodsong!: An Account of Executive Outcomes in Angola,” James Hooper

“Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela,” Nelson Mandela

“The Bang-Bang Club: Snapshots from a Hidden War,” Greg Marinovich and Joao Silva

“Kaffir Boy: An Autobiography –The True Story of a Black Youth’s Coming of Age in Apartheid South Africa,” Mark Mathabane

“Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa,” Martin Meredith

“The Washing of the Spears: The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation,” Donald R. Morris

“Boer War,” Thomas Pakenham (Out of Print)

“Cry, the Beloved Country,” Alan Paton

“Mandela: The Authorized Biography,” Anthony Sampson

“The Mind of South Africa,” Allister Sparks (Out of Print)

“Dead Leaves: Two Years in the Rhodesian War,” Dan Wylie

West Africa

“Things Fall Apart,” Chinua Achebe

“A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier,” Ishmael Beah

“In the Land of Magic Soldiers: A Story of White and Black in West Africa,” Daniel Bergner

“French Lessons in Africa: Travels with My Briefcase through French Africa,” Peter Biddlecombe

“Blood Diamonds: Tracing the Deadlv Path of the World’s Most Precious Stones,” Greg Campbell

“West Africa before the Colonial Era: A History to 1850,” Basil Davidson

“The Fall of the Asante Empire: The Hundred-Year War for Africa’s Gold Coast,” Robert B. Edgerton

“The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of an African Civil War,” Stephen Ellis

“Travels in West Africa,” Mary Kingsley

“Sahara Unveiled: A Journey across the Desert,” William Langewiesche

“Designing West Africa: Prelude to 2151 Century Calamity,” Peter Schwab

“War Dog: Fighting Other People’s Wars – The Modem Mercenary in Combat,” Al Venter

“How De Body? One Man’s Terrifying Journey through an African War,” Teun Voeten

“Liberia: The Heart of Darkness,” Gabriel LH. Williams


“The Shadow of the Sun,” Ryszard Kapuscinski

“Facing the Congo: A Modem Day Journey into the Heart of Darkness,” Jeffrey Tayler

“Dark Star Safari: Overland from Cairo to Cape Town,” Paul Theroux

Middle East/Religion

“The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an,” English/Arabic Translation, Abdullah Yusef Ali

“African Islam and Islam in Africa: Encounters between Sufis and Islamists,” Eva Evers Rosander and David Westerlund (Out of Print)

“History of the Arab Peoples,” Albert Hourani

“History of Christianity in Africa: From Antiquity to the Present,” Elizabeth Isichei

“Reliance of the Traveller: The Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law Umdat Al-Salik,” Ahmad ibn Lulu ibn Al-Naquib

“History of Islam in Africa,” Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels

“The Arabs in History,” Bernard Lewis

“The Future of Christianity,” Alister E. McGrath

“Milestones,” Sayid Qutb

“Islam and Muslim Politics in Africa,” Benjamin Soares and Rene Otayek

“A History of the Church in Africa,” Bengt Sundkler and Christopher Steed (Out of Print)

“History of Christianity in Africa in the Context of African History,” Fran J. Verstraelen

The Koran (translated into English)

(Don’t know where to begin? Check out the top picks.)

What books would you recommend?


Vote for the Best AFRICOM Photo of February

Here are a few of our favorite photos from February. Vote for your favorite here or use the survey in the pop-up window!

USS Simpson arrives in Dakar for refueling

Senegal: USS Simpson arrives in Dakar for refueling

120207-N-IZ292-203: DAKAR, Senegal (Feb. 7, 2012) – Electronics Technician 3rd Class Jonathan Salas heaves a mooring line to a tugboat as the guided-missile frigate USS Simpson (FFG 56) arrives in Dakar for refueling. Simpson, homeported out of Mayport, Fla., is currently conducting theater security cooperation and maritime security operations in the Naval Forces Africa area of responsibility. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Felicito Rustique/Released)

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Eleventh Marine Expeditionary Unit trains in Horn of Africa region

Eleventh Marine Expeditionary Unit trains in Horn of Africa region

Lance Cpl. Scott King takes a break during a patrol Jan. 29. The 19-year-old Riding Sun, Md., native operates an M88A2 recovery vehicle with Combat Logistics Battalion 11. The battalion provides logistics and services for the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit. The unit is currently deployed as part of the Makin Island Amphibious Ready Group, a U.S. Central Command theater reserve force providing support for maritime security operations and theater security cooperation efforts in the U.S. Navy’s 5th Fleet area of responsibility.

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USS Simpson community service project in Lagos

Nigeria: USS Simpson sailors distribute books as part of Africa Partnership Station (APS)

LAGOS, Nigeria (Feb. 16, 2012) – Musician 3rd Class Andrew Francisco, assigned to the Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe Band, plays the saxophone for school children from the Tomaro Junior Secondary School, while books were distributed by Sailors from the guided-missile frigate USS Simpson (FFG 56) in support of Africa Partnership Station (APS) 2012. APS is an international security cooperation initiative facilitated by Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe-Africa, aimed at strengthening global maritime partnerships through training and collaborative activities in order to improve maritime safety and security in Africa. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Felicito Rustique/Released)

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Serviccemember reenlists underwater

Off Djibouti: Sailor reenlists underwater

GULF OF TADJOURA, Djibouti (Feb. 12, 2012) – U.S. Navy Lieutenant Scott Pennoyer reads (right) U.S. Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Geoff Shepelew, both of the 221st Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit 2, the Oath of Enlistment off the coast of Moucha Island, Djibouti, February 12. Shepelew chose to reenlist underwater while during his deployment to the Horn of Africa. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sergeant Joseph A. Araiza)

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Djibouti: U.S. military checks on wells

ALI ADDE, Djibouti (Feb. 9, 2012) – Villagers demonstrate how to draw water from a community well they dug by hand to U.S. Army Sergeant Major Richard Erickson, U.S. Army 257th Engineer Team here, February 9. The 257th Engineer Team, in support of Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa, is visiting Ali Adde to conduct analysis of wells drilled by the U.S. military to assess their performance. Site data will help shape future water well-drilling operations. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sergeant Joseph A. Araiza/Released)

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Mali: Atlas Accord 2012

MOPTI, MALI — A Malian Air Force BT-67 drops helicopter boxes as part of aerial re-supply training during operation Atlas Accord near Mopti, Mali on Feb. 13, 2012. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Mark Henderson)

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Which photo is your favorite? Vote here!

Top Picks from AFRICOM Reading List

"Things Fall Apart" coverMaintaining up-to-date information and deep knowledge about Africa is critical to the team at the U.S. Africa Command. To that end, a reading list was compiled to provide suggestions. Here are some top picks. Check the blog next week for the full list.

Thanks to the AFRICOM Research Library for providing us with this list. Look for an upcoming story on the library, new to Kelley Barracks.

1.  “The Fate of Africa or The State of Africa: A History of Fifty Years of Independence,” Martin Meredith (2005).  A narrative history of Africa over the last fifty years, with a focus on people and key events.  This is a great start point for those becoming acquainted with the African continent.

2. “Things Fall Apart,” Chinua Achebe (1958).  An African literary classic that captures the cultural intrusions represented by colonialism.  This book is one of the most well-known African novels, and as such should be required reading for individuals interacting in Africa.

3.  “The Road to Hell,” Michael Maren (1989).  An overview of the unintended consequences of U.S. humanitarian aid.  This book provides good insight into events that led to the violent end of U.S. involvement in Somalia.

"This Child Will Be Great" cover4.  “This Child Will Be Great: Memoir of a Remarkable Life by Africa’s First Woman President,” Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (2009).  This is a compelling tale of the President of Liberia’s  early childhood, rise to power, and experiences with abuse, imprisonment, exile, and fight for democracy and social justice.

5.  “Left to Tell: Discovering God Amidst the Rwandan Holocaust,” Immaculée Ilibagiza (2006).  This is an inspiring story about a young Rwandan woman’s genocide survival.  Her story gives us hope in overcoming the divisions deliberately created by those with self-serving agendas and no thought for humanity.

6.  “Understanding Contemporary Africa,” April Gordon (2007).  An academic overview of the issues and challenges surrounding contemporary Africa.  Topics include African cultures, politics, religion, economies, gender relations, and literature.

"Long Walk to Freedom" cover7.  “Long Walk to Freedom,” Nelson Mandela (1995).  This book should be required reading if for no other reason than it recognizes and provides insight into one of Africa’s greatest Statesmen.

8.  “The State in Africa: Politics of the Belly,” Jean-Francois Bayart (1989).   A translation of the book: L’etat en Afrique: Politique du Ventre, the term “politics of the belly” is a metaphor for a nepotistic, corrupt African State in which government and business elite use their influence to enrich themselves, their families or ethnic kinsmen.  Similar in concept to neopatrimonialism, in which private sector support is bought by the state, this book addresses the form of governance that arose across much of Africa following independence.  Nigeria’s postcolonial experience is perhaps the most apt example of the “politics of the belly”.

9. “More Than Humanitarianism: A Strategic U.S. Approach Toward Africa,” Anthony Lake (2007).  This Council on Foreign Relations-sponsored Independent Task Force Report argues that Africa is becoming steadily more central to the United States and to the rest of the world in ways that transcend humanitarian interests.  Africa now plays an increasingly significant role in supplying energy, preventing the spread of terrorism, and halting the devastation of HIV/AIDS.  Africa’s growing importance is reflected in the intensifying competition with China and other countries for both access to African resources and influence in this region.  A more comprehensive U.S. policy toward Africa is needed, the report states, and it lays out recommendations for policymakers to craft that policy.

10. “World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe,”  Gerard Prunier (2009).  The Rwandan genocide sparked a horrific bloodbath that swept across sub-Saharan Africa, ultimately leading to the deaths of some four million people. This book offers a gripping account of how one grisly episode laid the groundwork for a sweeping and disastrous upheaval. The heart of the book documents how the whole core of the African continent became engulfed in an intractable and bloody conflict after 1998, a devastating war that only wound down following the assassination of Kabila in 2001.  The author indicts the international community for its lack of interest in what was then the largest conflict in the world.

"The African Union"11.  “The African Union: Challenges of Globalization, Security, and Governance,” Samuel Makinda (2007).  This book is a comprehensive examination of the work of the African Union (AU), with special emphasis on its capacity to meet the challenges of building and sustaining governance institutions and security mechanisms.  It articulates how Africa and, in particular, the AU can effectively address the challenges of building and sustaining governance institutions and security mechanisms only if they have strategic leadership.  Current debates on, and criticisms of, leadership in Africa are also analyzed as well as key options for overcoming the constraints that African leaders face.

12.  “African Security Governance,” Gavin Cawthra (2010).  A result of research carried out over several years by the Southern African Defence and Security Management Network (SADSEM), in co-operation with the Danish Institute for International Studies and the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, this book covers many of Africa’s new and emerging security issu

es.  The broad focus is on security governance – the role of state and a wide range of social actors in the areas of both human and state security. It deals with a range of sectors, themes and national case studies and makes an important contribution to debates on security sector reform. The topics covered include policing transformation, intelligence governance, regulation of private security actors, challenges of nuclear proliferation, regional security, peace diplomacy and peace missions, the relationship between development and security, and new challenges in governance of the military.

Have you read one of these books? Let us know what you’d recommend in the comments below.

10 Things About Atlas Accord 2012

BT-67 air drop during Atlas Accord 2012

MOPTI, MALI -- A Malian Air Force BT-67 drops helicopter boxes as part of aerial re-supply training during operation Atlas Accord near Mopti, Mali on Feb. 13, 2012. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Mark Henderson)

1. The Atlas Accord is an annual exercise that brings together U.S. Army personnel with militaries in Africa.

2. More than 300 military members and seven nations joined the exercise this year from Feb. 7 to 15, 2012.

3. Last year, Uganda hosted the exercise, which was called Atlas Drop.

4. Atlas Accord 2012 focused on enhancing air drop capabilities and ensures effective delivery of military resupply materials and humanitarian aid.

5. The learning goes both ways. “I learned they do a lot with a little. I don’t know how they handle trauma situations but, it’s impressive how they do it,” said Staff Sergeant Anthony P. Baca, an 807th MDSC Army healthcare specialist.

There have been challenges, but the Malians were very resourceful, said U.S. Army Capt. Bob V. Luthor from Huntington, W. Va., a team leader with Co. C, 2nd Bn., 19th SFG (Abn.). They removed a second set of pilot flight controls from one of the smaller aircraft to fit the supplies and personnel to drop them.

A cordon set up during Atlas Accord 2012

MOPTI, MALI — A Malian airmen set up a cordon around a helicopter box as part of the air drop recovery training with the 2/19th Special Forces as part of operation Atlas Accord 2012, near Mopti, Mali on Feb. 13, 2012. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Mark Henderson)

6. African troops learned how to secure a drop zone in adverse conditions.  “The training was really interesting,” said Malian Army Sgt. Oumar Traore, as airborne infantryman.

“The 19th SFG taught us to set-up the operational readiness platform, to send out reconnaissance patrols, and establish security at the drop zone. We’ve learned how to conduct these operations under any circumstances. This exercise also helps us work with troops from other nations,” he said.

7. Atlas Accord also included a medical component. “We are training with the Malian medical personnel on different types of equipment that include cervical braces, finger splints, ring cutters, pressure bandages, back boards and more,” said Maj. Dean A. Nelson, a family physician and Wendell, Idaho native assigned to the 328th CSH, 807th MDSC.

MOPTI, MALI — U.S. Army Maj. Dean A. Nelson, 807th Medical Deployment Support Command, Fort Douglas, Utah, and Wendell, Idaho native, explains the use of a battery powered cauterizer pen to Malian Medical Defense Forces Col. Youssouf Treore, in Mopti, Mali, Feb. 7. The 807th MDSC were in Mali as medical support during Atlas Accord 12. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Kimberly Trumbull)

8. The U.S. medics are also training, in a sense, on how to be better trainers. “The training will help our medics become better since they are teaching the Malians through interpreters and have to move slowly and ensure they are understood; it gives them a better understanding of the training they are providing,” said Lt. Col. David H. Moikeha, an emergency physician, and Coppell, Texas native, assigned to the 94th Combat Support Hospital, 807th MDSC.

 9. Thanks to the exercise, the Malian military will be able to improve its trauma care. “We receive so much trauma from highway accidents, military and civilian,” said Malian Army Col. Youssouf Treore, commander of the medical detachment in Mopti. “The equipment we have will help us care for the trauma patients we receive at our level.”

10. The exercise’ impact will reach far beyond February 2012. The pathfinder training during Atlas Accord 12 can potentially help future joint operations between partner nations to deliver humanitarian supplies safely to those in need.

— Compiled from various reports, including from Utah Army National Guard, Soldiers Radio News, U.S. Army Africa, AFRICOM, and others.

Interested in learning more? Check out:

Radio report on Atlas Accord from Soldiers Radio News (MP3)

Overview at the Close of Atlas Accord from Soldiers Radio News
Troops train on 4 aerial delivery systems
Training on FARP(Forward Arming and Refueling Point), as easy-access point in austere conditions (video)

U.S., Malian military medics train to save lives
Pathfinders ‘get the goods’

U.S., African Forces Mitigate Terror Group’s Impact

By Lisa Daniel
American Forces Press Service

WASHINGTON, Feb. 22, 2012 – U.S. special operations forces are helping four Central African nations reduce the size and lethality of the Lord’s Resistance Army, a group that has terrorized the region for 25 years, U.S. officials said today.

Navy Rear Adm. Brian L. Losey, commander of Special Operations Command Africa, said in a conf erence call with reporters that the LRA is down to about 200 core fighters. Karly Wycoff, deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs, also participated in the call.

While still under the direction of its leader, Joseph Kony, the admiral said, the group is kept on the run in the remote, shared border region of South Sudan, Uganda, Central Africa Republic and the Democratic Republic of Congo — an area about the size of California.

President Barack Obama ordered about 100 special operations forces to deploy to Central Africa in October to train and augment the capabilities of the African militaries in the region.

The U.S. effort to help the four-nation partnership counter the LRA is a comprehensive, multi-faceted strategy that has included training, funding, airlift, logistics, communications and intelligence support — specifically, fusing intelligence and support to operations, Losey and Wycoff said.

“With our support, these four military forces continue to make progress in reducing the LRA’s numbers and keep them from regrouping,” Wycoff said.

U.S. forces also are working closely with the State Department, the United Nations, the African Union and nongovernmental organizations to provide humanitarian relief in the region, Wycoff said.

“The military is only one part of a broader strategy,” Wycoff said. A large part of the strategy is to entice LRA members to defect and safely return home, with the help of government and aid organizations, he said, and to publicize those defections.

“One of the sad realities of this situation is that many of the perpetrators of these [LRA] atrocities were victims themselves, abducted in their childhood and forced to fight,” he said.

Wycoff likened Kony and his followers to a cult that has kidnapped and murdered civilians for two decades, causing an estimated 455,000 people to be displaced or to live as refugees. The LRA is not known to be involved in any money-making criminal enterprise, he said, but survives off foraging and pillaging of villages.

The LRA is implicated in 278 attacks and at least 300 abductions last year, which decreased at the end of the year, they said.

“Now they are only a small percentage of their former strength,” Losey said. But the fact that the LRA is operating at all, even at reduced strength, is terrifying to people in the region, he added.

Losey said the removal of Kony is one of the chief objectives in a broader mission to enable the four partner nations to be fully capable to counter the LRA. Though there is no timeline for the U.S. mission, he added, it also is not open-ended.

“We want to make very clear that we are supporting, and not leading, this effort,” he said.

The fact that the four African nations came together for the effort to defeat the LRA is an achievement, Losey said.

“This operation is at its core what U.S. Africa Command is all about,” he said. “In the long run, it is the Africans who are best suited to address” their regional security challenges.

Travel Diary: Secretary Clinton Travels to Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Togo, and Cape Verde


Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton will travel to Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Togo, and Cape Verde on January 16-17, 2012, to demonstrate U.S. commitment to post-conflict return to peace, good governance, and economic development as well as to emphasize U.S. focus on democratization.

While in Liberia, Secretary Clinton will attend President Sirleaf’s inauguration and preside over the ribbon-cutting of the New U.S. Embassy Compound in Monrovia. In Cote d’Ivoire, she will meet with President Ouattara to showcase our support for national reconciliation and strengthening democratic institutions following successful legislative elections in December 2011. In the first visit of a Secretary of State to Togo, Secretary Clinton will meet President Faure to demonstrate U.S. support for Togo’s democratic progress and economic reforms and to congratulate Togo on its recent election to the United Nations Security Council, where it holds a non-permanent seat for 2012 and 2013. In Cape Verde, Secretary Clinton will meet Prime Minister Neves to discuss cooperation on regional issues like counternarcotics, good governance, sound economic policies, and Cape Verde’s second Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact.

This blog can be found at:

South Sudan Women Working To Overcome Food Insecurity

Elisabeth Kvitashvili serves as U.S. Alternate Permanent Representative to the United Nations Agencies in Rome, Italy and Humanitarian Affairs Counselor, U.S. Agency for International Development.

I have spent a lot of time in many countries in Africa, usually countries suffering from some type of man-made or natural disaster. While no agriculture expert, my eyes are trained enough to seek out and identify problems and solutions that touch on food insecurity. I usually find a somewhat despairing situation.

Recently, after travelling on the bumpy to non-existent “roads” of South Sudan, I came away impressed — impressed with the hopeful vision of a country that has enormous potential to move quickly into a state of relative food self sufficiency, perhaps within less than a generation.

And the women of South Sudan are playing a big part in the country’s drive towards recovery. According to Ofeni Ngota Amitai, the minister of agriculture for Morobo county, women are critical to helping the country move away from humanitarian interventions towards a more balanced foundation of recovery. While on my field visit to the Eastern and Central Equatoria states, I witnessed the collective efforts of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Programme (WFP), both of whom receive valuable financial support from USAID, to support the Republic of South Sudan’s endeavors to tackle food insecurity through a wide range of recovery activities.

South Sudan remains a major recipient of food aid, much of it supplied by the U.S. government through the World Food Programme. The food security outlook for 2012 is worrisome for the 1.2 million people of South Sudan, a new country comprised of 10 states, with a wide range of agro-climatic conditions and a population that includes traditional farmers and agro-pastoralists (farmers who also raise livestock).

Livestock is key to the livelihoods of millions of South Sudanese, so keeping animals healthy to ensure availability of meat and milk products but also cash from the sale of cattle is a major concern of local officials with whom I spoke. Unfortunately, disease outbreaks are common and with very limited government capacity to handle such cases, treatment has been hard to come by.

With support from FAO, however, South Sudanese agro-pastoralists are being given initial supplies of vaccines and are being trained to vaccinate livestock. People will pay to have their animals vaccinated, so cost recovery is introduced to ensure vaccinators can replenish their supplies. I watched a group of semi-nomadic agro-pastoralists, including women herders in one cattle camp I visited in Torit, successfully vaccinate over 100 long-horn cattle in just one hour. And as one woman vaccinator walked me through her village, she explained how she was putting her three children through the local school “in town” with the increased income she had from selling healthy cattle.

Elsewhere, in Yei and Morobo in Central Equatoria, women were hand threshing just-harvested sorghum and pearl millet grown from seeds they had received as participants in an FAO-sponsored community-based Seed Production and Supply activity. This activity is implemented by the Kogbo Multipurpose Farmer Group and Equatoria Farmer Extension Advisory Association in collaboration with the Morobo Agriculture Department. Since Yei and Morobo are part of South Sudan’s “green belt,” improved availability and access to quality seeds is key to helping increase local production, thereby reducing dependence on imports from northern Uganda.

Everywhere I went I heard the same refrain from South Sudanese…we want to reduce our reliance on humanitarian assistance as we have the land and ability to produce enough ourselves. Farmers want to move away from subsistence to commercial farming and need assistance in getting increased production to the markets of South Sudan. With support from their partners at FAO and WFP and commitment from their government, the South Sudanese are on a good path, despite the many obstacles, towards their goal of becoming food self-sufficient.

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